Properties at Cryogenic Temperatures

The austenitic stainless steels remain tough and ductile to very low temperatures. Metals such as iron and constructional steels undergo a marked decrease in ductility at lower temperatures.

COMMON CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES:

Environment Degrees C Degrees F
Boiling Helium - 268.6 - 454
Boiling Hydrogen - 252.5 - 418
Freezing Nitrogen - 209.9 - 346
Boiling Nitrogen - 195.8 - 319
Boiling Methane - 164.0 - 265
Solid Carbon Dioxide - 78.5 - 108
Boiling Freon 12 - 29.8 - 22
Water as ice 0.0 32

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON MODULUS OF ELASTICITY:

Alloy Room Temp. Tensile - ksi Degrees C Degrees F
      Room Temp. At -196øC
301 106 25.4 x 10-6 28.6 x 10-6
302 88 26.2 27.2
304 87 24.4 26.2
347 95 23.3 27.6


MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES:

  Strength by Alloy Listed in ksi
  301 302 304 304L 3105 316 321 347
0øC
Yield 42 42 38 28 35 40 40 40
Tensile 160 120 115 98 88 90 100 100
Elong. 60% 50% 60% 58% 50% 68% 58% 60%
Charpy keyhole notch in ft. lb. 39 34 37 - 38 35 32 29
  301 302 304 304L 3105 316 321 347
-40øC
Yield 44 43 40 30 40 45 45 45
Tensile 180 135 135 115 94 105 120 115
Elong. 40% 58% 55% 55% 70% 67% 55% 58%
Charpy keyhole notch in ft. lb. - - - - - - - -
  301 302 304 304L 3105 316 321 347
-78øC
Yield 50 58 45 35 48 57 50 50
Tensile 162 164 165 138 110 120 138 136
Elong. 52% 52% 48% 50% 78% 65% 53% 52%
Charpy keyhole notch in ft. lb. 21 27 26 - 30 26 25 23
  301 302 304 304L 3105 316 321 347
-168øC
Yield 62 62 55 40 62 73 58 50
Tensile 210 210 208 175 140 160 185 180
Elong. 44% 43% 42% 44% 90% 61% 47% 45%
Charpy keyhole notch in ft. lb. 5.5 9.5 21 16 24 19 22 19
  301 302 304 304L 3105 316 321 347
-196øC
Yield 55 62 57 45 75 80 60 52
Tensile 275 225 225 192 151 180 211 195
Elong. 30% 40% 38% 42% 93% 19% 22% 19%
Charpy keyhole notch in ft. lb. - - - - - - - -
  301 302 304 304L 3105 316 321 347
-253øC
Yield - 62 69 50 96 93 68 65
Tensile - 258 250 220 180 230 248 230
Elong. - 38% 27% 41% 71% 55% 34% -
Charpy keyhole notch in ft. lb. - - - 19 - - - -

 

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