Cold Working Properties

The austenitic chromium-nickel stainless steels are cold formed (bent, drawn, shaped) and the cold forming imparts a higher strength than for the original starting annealed condition. It is not typical to heat these stainless steels for forming as is often done with carbon steel. The following are the designations of cold worked tempers as defined by ASTM A 666, Standard Specification for Austenitic Stainless Steel, Sheet, Strip, Plate & Flat Bar.

1/4 Hard, 1/2 Hard, 3/4 Hard, Full Hard

Reheating the cold worked austenitic stainless steels at temperatures below 370C (700F) increases the tensile strength. Reheating above 425C (900F) lowers the strength and increases the ductility.

Cold working increases the fatigue strength of the austenitic stainless steels. However, the fatigue strength of these cold worked alloys is reduced by notches, as compared to notched fatigue strength in the annealed condition.

Fatigue Strength (Endurance Limits) of Cold Worked Stainless Steels
AISI Type Temper Endurance Limit - ksi
301 Full Hard 80
302 Full Hard 75
303 1/4 Hard 48
304 Annealed 35
304 1/2 Hard 70
304 3/4 Hard 92
347 3/4 Hard 88

 

Minimum Tensile Strength of Cold Rolled Sheet & Strip for 304
The other common 300 series alloys are similar.
Temper Tensile ksi Yield ksi Elong. % Rockwell C Hardness
1/4 Hard 125 75 23 25
1/2 Hard 150 110 16 32
3/4 Hard 175 135 11 37
Full Hard 185 140 8 41
Extra Full Hard 200 - - 45

 

Tensile Strength of Cold Drawn Cr-Ni Stainless Steel Wire
Diameter Range of 0.126 - 0.375"
AISI TYPE TEMPER YIELD-ksi TENSILE-ksi ELONG.%
302 1/4 hard 90-125 120-140 15-25
1/2 hard 120-150 145-176 10-17
3/4 hard 150-180 170-200 5-10
*Full hard 180-220 190-230 2-5
*Typical of wires used in making stranded wire rope
304 1/4 hard 90-110 120-140 20-30
1/2 hard 120-140 130-170 10-18
3/4 hard 140-170 170-200 5-10
Full hard 170-210 200-240 2-5
309S 1/4 hard 80-90 110-130 15-25
1/2 hard 105-125 125-155 10-11
3/4 hard 125-150 140-180 8-12
Full hard 150-185 160-190 4-8
310S 1/4 hard 80-90 110-130 15-25
1/2 hard 105-125 125-155 10-11
3/4 hard 125-150 140-180 8-12
Full hard 150-185 160-195 3-6
316 1/4 hard 80-100 110-130 20-30
1/2 hard 105-125 135-155 12-20
3/4 hard 135-165 165-195 8-12
Full hard 155-185 185-215 3-6
321 1/4 hard 90-110 120-140 20-30
1/2 hard 120-140 150-170 10-18
3/4 hard 140-170 170-200 5-10
Full hard 170-210 200-240 2-5
347 1/4 hard 85-105 115-135 15-25
1/2 hard 110-130 140-160 10-13
3/4 hard 140-170 170-200 5-10
Full hard 160-190 190-220 3-6

 

TENSILE PROPERTIES OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS
FOR VARIOUS AMOUNTS OF COLD WORKING
  STRENGTH IN ksi for % COLD REDUCTION SHOWN
Alloy 0 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%
301
Tensile 120 150 168 184 198 210 222
Yield 40 87 120 148 170 185 202
Elong. 75% 58% 42% 32% 22% 15% 6%
302
Tensile 93 108 122 138 152 168 180
Yield 37 91 107 120 134 147 160
Elong. 67% 42% 30% 20% 15% 10% 6%
303
Tensile 91 106 125 148 171 196 n/a
Yield n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Elong. 75% 58% 42% 32% 22% 15% 6%
304
Tensile 86 98 113 130 146 158 169
Yield 34 69 97 120 135 145 152
Elong. 53% 36% 25% 16% 13% 10% 6%
304L
Tensile 83 106 122 138 154 170 n/a
Yield 32 72 97 120 138 152 n/a
Elong. 57% 35% 23% 15% 10% 5% n/a
309S
Tensile 80 87 98 115 135 151 165
Yield 37 57 82 102 122 140 153
Elong. 55% 45% 30% 14% 9% 5% 3%
310S
Tensile 86 108 126 140 153 166 174
Yield 45 67 97 125 140 148 152
Elong. 45% 29% 15% 8% 6% 5% 5%
316
Tensile 85 95 110 130 142 150 169
Yield 38 70 98 118 128 137 148
Elong. 60% 40% 21% 12% 8% 6% 5%
321
Tensile 88 100 115 135 150 160 168
Yield 32 70 100 120 134 142 145
Elong. 55% 45% 26% 13% 8% 5% 4%
347
Tensile 96 105 122 144 159 168 173
Yield 40 78 109 128 138 143 149
Elong. 50% 33% 12% 8% 7% 6% 5%

 

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